F R A N C I S   H A Y D N   W I L L I A M S
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1836  FHW born (13th October) in Salisbury.

The second eldest of 7 children (5 daughters and 2 sons) born to parents Francis and Eliza  Amor William.  

Father Francis born (1815)   in Radipole, Dorset;


Mother Eliza Amor born (1813) in Salisbury.


Sometime after the birth of their last child, Mary J in 1846, Francis and   Eliza Williams moved the family from Salisbury to Southampton, some   twenty four miles south-east.

The move appears to have been a staged  process:

the 1851 Census records records Francis aged 37 (master tailor) and Eliza Williams aged 38 (stay maker) living at 11 Above Bar Street in  All Saints, Southampton, with four of their children; Eliza aged 16  (stay   maker), Emma aged 9, (scholar), Henry H aged 7 (scholar) and Mary J   aged 5 (scholar).

Three other people are registered to be in residence at 11   Above Bar Street at this time; Ann Kelly, aged 21 (servant), Fanny Duke,   aged 68 (employee- stay maker), Jane Bendall, aged 14 (servant) and Lucy   Boyer, aged 46 (accountant).


In a separate record for 1851, the Census of that year records FHW    (aged 15, a school monitor) living at 131 New Street, Southampton,  with his aunt,

Maria Amor aged 51 (Head of Household), and  Maria, aged 11 (her niece and FHW’s sister), and Hatti, Maria  Amor’s niece, aged 13.  There is no identified reference to Francis    and Eliza’s daughter, Catherine in the 1851 Census, but she reappears 1861 Census.

1853 At the age of 16, FHW starts an apprenticeship at the national headquarters of the Ordnance Survey in Southampton.

1864 FHW marries Henrietta Jefferis in St Pancras, London, on August 11th; 6   children (4 sons and 2 daughters born between 1865 and 1877).   

1866 FHW made redundant at Ordnance Survey, with small pension enabling   him to accept advice and pursue a career in the Congregationalist church.

1867  FHW appointed Minister at the East Cowes Congregational Church, Isle   of Wight, in February 1867.  

1873 FHW resigns from East Cowes to embark on a trip to New England,    America to visit a relative and to preach in Massachusetts, New England.  

1876  FHW returns from America and settles his family in Plumstead, London,   where he became Congregationalist Minister of Plumstead Independent   Church.

1877  FHW resigns position in Plumstead and, influenced by his experiences in New   England, starts to develop his interest in Unitarian theology.

1881 FHW appointed Unitarian Minister for Barnard Castle and Darlington,  on the eastern edge of the Pennines.


1882  FHW resigns in February 1882 to take up a post in Blackpool as Minister   at the North Shore Unitarian Church.

1888 FHW resigns position in Blackpool in January and appointed Minister at    Flowergate Chapel, Whitby in February 1888.

1890 FHW’s first encounter/clash with Lord  of the Manor, Strickland over Abbey enclosure.

1891 FHW opens pathway to the Malyan Spout in Goathland.

1892 May 4th to June 4th   FHW imprisoned in Holloway jail.

1892, almost immediately he attacks the barbed wire Strickland has put in place while he was in Holloway; he serves three months in York prison for “wilful damage” to the Abbey Plain. His health deteriorates. He is released in Sept 1892

1894 FHW demolishes railings of the Whitby Saloon enclosure.

1894 FHW is elected to the Council for the East Side but later resigns his position citing ill heath.

1896 FHW takes out a summons against the superintendent of police, loses his case, strikes the aforesaid superintendent in open court and is freed by the presiding judge the following morning.

1903-1906 FHW campaigns against the trustees of the 1861 lifeboat disaster alleging  maladministration.

1903 January FHW publishes “The Insoluable Problem” his take on possible belief.

1909 FHW campaigns against “carpet shaking” by Whitby residents suggesting it should be done after dark

1909 FHW publishes “A Hymn book of God and the Moral Ideal” with Mrs Tattersal

1910  FHW Dies in Whitby, of pneumonia.

1836 Chartists demand universal suffrage and secret ballot, Famine in Scottish Highlands

1842 Income tax reintroduced, Riots and strikes in industrial North, Queen Victoria takes first railway journey

1844 Cooperative movement begins in Rochdale, YMCA founded, Factory Acts,

1846 Lord John Russell PM, Corn Laws repealed, Evangelical Alliance formed in London, French invasion scare, Sugar Duties Act.

1847  Factory Act restricts working day for children and women to 10 hours a day.Large scale Irish emigration as a result of Irish famine.

1848 First Public Health Act establishes Boards of Health giving cities broad authority to build modern sanitary systems, Chartist Rallies,Karl Marx's Communist Manifesto, Macaulay's History of England, J. S. Mill's Principles of the Political Economy, Elizabeth Gaskell's Mary Barton

1853  Russia and Turkey clash over Danubian territories and in the Black Sea leading to Crimean War.

1856 Victoria Cross established, First cigarette factory opened by Robert Gloag who was a veteran of the Crimean War where British soldiers came into contact with the paper rolled tobacco for the first time, Big Ben is cast.

1857 The Indian “Mutiny”.

1860  American Civil War begins (until 1865), Italian Unification Wars, Vladivostock founded, German explorer Karl von der Decken explores East Africa with a view to starting German colonies there.

George Eliot's Mill on the Floss, William Wilkie Collins' The Woman in White, Robert Schumann's Cello Concerto.

Machine-made single-shot breech-loading rifles proliferate, Bunsen and Kirchoff discover Cesium and rubidum, Lenoir constructs first practical internal combustion engine, First horse-drawn tram .

1861 Machine-made single-shot breech-loading rifles proliferate, Bunsen and Kirchoff discover Cesium and rubidum, Lenoir constructs first practical internal combustion engine, First horse-drawn tram

Pasteur's Germ Theory of disease, Richard Gatling invents the Gatling Gun, Archaeopteryx discovered in Germany, William Crookes discovers thallium, Daily weather forecasts in Britain begin.

1863 Lincoln issues Gettysburg Address which includes the call for the Emancipation of slaves, French offer throne of Mexico to Archduke Maximilian of Austria.

Geneva Convention establishes the neutrality of battlfield medical facilities.

Jules Verne's Voyage to the Centre of the Earth, Dostoevsky's Letters From the Underground, Anthony Trollope's The Small House at Allington, Tolstoy begins War and Peace, Charles Dickens' Our Mutual Friend.

Octavia Hill begins London tenement dwelling reforms

1865 Lord John Russell PM, Salvation Army started by William Booth, Queensberry Rules for boxing are first outlined.

American Civil War comes to an end with Union victory, Lincoln assassinated, War of Triple Alliance sees Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay fight Paraguay (until 1870), Ku Klux Klan formed in Tennessee.

Winslow Homer's Prisoners from the Front, Lewis Carroll's Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, Wagner's Wagner: Tristan und Isolde,

1866 Earl of Derby PM, Black Friday on London Stock Exchange, Dr Barnardo opens his first home for destitute children in London.

Nobel invents dynamite, Aeronautical Society of Great Britain formed, Ernst Haeckel's General Morphology, Robert Whitehead develops torpedo.

1867 US buys Alaska from Russia, Meiji restoration in Japan, Bismarck organises a north German Confederation under Prussian leadership, Maximillian surrenders in Mexico and is executed by firing squad, US claim Midway Islands in Pacific Ocean

Second Parliamentary Reform Act.

1869 Suez Canal opened, Red River Rebellion delays transfer of Hudson's Bay Company territories to Canada, Newfoundland rejects incorporation into Canada, Stanley is recruited by New York Times to search for Livingstone

1870 Elementary education act.Pope is declared to be infallible when speaking on spiritual matters,

1873 Barbed wire invented by Henry Rose, James Clerk Maxwell's Electricity and Magnetism, Wilhelm Wundt's Physiological Psychology.

1876  Plimsoll line introduced to protect ships from being overloaded.Robert Koch discovers anthrax bacillus, .

1877 Edison invents Phonograph, Frozen meat shipped from Argentina to Europe for the first time, Robert Kock develops technique to stain and identify bacteria, Oxygen liquified. Britain threatens war with Russia if Russians occupy Constantinople, Wimbledon Tennis Championship starts.Tchaikovsky's Swan Lake, Henry James' The American, Henrik Ibsen's The Pillars of Society, Brahms' Symphony No 2; Hungarian Dances

1880 Canned fruits and meats become widespreadly available, First electric street light in New York, Charles Lavern proves that Malaria is caused by a parasite in the blood, James Wimshurst invents electrostatic generator, Pasteur discovers a chicken cholera vaccine, Edison and Swan both develop a practical electric light  First Boer War (until 1881), First Canadian High Commissioner appointed to London, Captain Boycott is 'boycotted' for treatment of Irish tenants.

1882 Bombardment of Alexandria and occupation of Egypt, Kilmainham agreement between Parnell and British government.

1886 William Ewart Gladstone PM, Gladstone resigns over Ireland Home Rule Bill being defeated, Chamberlain forms Liberal Unionists, Salisbury PM. Ernst von Bergmann uses steam to sterilize surgical instruments, Aluminium produced by electrolysis for first time.

1891 Trans-Siberian railway begun, Chilean civil war, Germany develops first old age pension scheme. Beginnings of wireless telegraphy, Samuel Langley's Experiments in Aerodynamics.

1892 Keir Hardie becomes first Labour Party MP. G.J. Romanes' Darwin and After Darwin, Diesel patents his internal combustion engine.

1895 Rontgen discovers X-Rays, First motion picture house in Paris, Gillette invents the safety razor, Konstantin Isiolkovski formulates the principle of rocket reaction propulsion, C. von Linde constructs a machine for the liquefaction of air, Marconi invents radio telegraphy, Sigmund Freud's Studies on Hysteria.

1897 Ronald Ross discovers malaria bacillus, William Thomson studies cathode rays, JJ, Thomson discovers electrons, aspirin marketed; diesel engines invented, Havelock Ellis' Studies in the Psychology of Sex, Julius Hann's Handbook of Climatology, David Schwarz flies first rigid framed airship

1898 Battle of Omdurman and Fashoda Crisis in Sudan,H.G. Wells' The War of the Worlds, Oscar Wilde's The Ballad of Reading Gaol, G.B. Shaw's Caesar and Cleopatra Curie discovers Radium.

1899  Boer war (until 1902), Anglo-Egyptian Condominium over Sudan, Boxer Rebellion sees European, Japanese and US forces unite to stem and crush the revolt,Rutherford discovers alpha and beta rays in radioactive atoms, First magnetic recording of sound.

1900 Relief of Kimberley, Ladysmith and Mafeking, Occupation of Pretoria and Johannesburg but Boer War continues, Max Planck formulates quantum theory, First Browning revolvers manufactured, Fessenden transmits human speech via radio waves, F.E. Dorn discovers Radium.

1901 Death of Queen Victoria, Edward VII becomes King, First British Submarine launched,Picasso's Blue Period (until 1905), Elgar's Cockaigne Overture, Kipling's Kim Max Planck's Laws of Radiation, W.H. Nernst postulates third law of thermodynamics, First Mercedes car constructed, The hormone adrenalin is isolated.

1903 First powered flight by the Wright brothers, Perthe establishes link between X-Rays and cancer, Wilhelm Einthoven invents the electrical cardiograph, J.J. Thomson's The Conduction of Electricity through Gases.

1905  Einstein formulates Special Theory of Relativity, Sigmund Freud's Three Contributions to the Theory of Sex, Wright Brothers improve their flying machine, Commercial Rayon production begins in Coventry’

1907  Van Pavlov studies conditioned reflexes, Ross Harrison develops tissue culture techniques, Louis Lumiere develops a process for colour photography using a three-colour screen, Anschutz and Schuler improve the gyrocompass, Lusitania and Mauretania launched.

1909 Louis Bleriot flies across the English Channel, Henri Farman becomes first person to fly 100 miles.Vaughan Williams' Fantasia on a Theme by Thomas Tallis.

Home Wandercasts Storm Jameson FHW's Hymnal Flowergate Chapel Friends of Flowergate Chapel Timeline Abbey Enclosure Malyan spout Lifeboat Disaster Religion Fictions Social Conditions